Kidney Res Clin Pract > Volume 40(2); 2021 > Article
Santos, Macías, Cruzado, and Vega: The removal capacity of asymmetric cellulose triacetate during post-dilution online hemodiafiltration
Hypersensitivity reactions to synthetic membranes continue to be observed [1] and typically disappear following replacement of the dialysis membrane with a different type, usually cellulose triacetate. Previous studies have described the low purification ability of β2-microglobulin and its limited use in online hemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) with symmetric cellulose dialyzers [2]. The high ultrafiltration coefficient (KUF) and configuration of asymmetric cellulose triacetate (ACT) allow its use in OL-HDF. However, there is lack of evidence of the performance of ACT dialyzers.
The aim of our study was to evaluate small- and mid-sized molecule clearance and albumin leakage in postdilution OL-HDF using the ACT dialyzer.
Nineteen adult patients with stage-5D kidney disease were enrolled in this study. The inclusion criteria were as follows: older than 18 years, completion of three 4-hour sessions weekly for at least 6 months, blood flow > 400 mL/min in the regular sessions, absence of hospital admission in the 4 weeks prior to the study and signed informed consent. Patients who failed to meet the inclusion criteria were excluded. Details of the dialyzer (Solacea dialyzer®, Nipro Medical Corp., Doral, FL, USA) are as follows: membrane surface area, 2.1 m2; KUF, 76 mL/hr/mmHg; inner diameter of hollow fiber, 200 µm; and membrane thickness, 25 µm. Ultrafiltration was prescribed according to the patient’s needs, and 24 L of substitution volume was programmed. The prescribed dialysis features included a 4-hour duration, blood flow of 400 mL/min, and dialysate flow of 700 mL/min.
Pre- and postdialysis blood samples were collected at the mid-week dialysis session. Removal of urea (60 Da), creatinine (113 Da), β2-microglobulin (11.8 kDa), cystatin C (13 kDa), myoglobin (17.2 kDa), and prolactin (23 kDa) was estimated using the reduction ratio (RR) as follows.
(1) RR = (Cpre - Cpost)/Cpre, where Cpre and Cpost are the pre- and posttreatment concentrations, respectively. Posttreatment concentrations of mid-size molecules were corrected for the haemoconcentration using the Bergström and Wehle formula [3].
β2 microglobulin was measured using a nephelometric immunoassay, and myoglobin and prolactin were assessed via electrochemiluminescence. Albumin was measured using an autoanalyzer. Estimated albumin leakage (EAL) was estimated according to the following formula.
(2) EAL = [15 × (C0 + C15)/2 + 15 × (C15 + C30)/2 + 30 × (C30 + C60)/2 + C60 × (C60 + C120)/2 + C120 × C120]/240 × UF + Sust + (Qd × 240/1,000)], where C is the albumin concentration in dialysate at the beginning (C0) and also at 15 minutes (C15), 30 minutes (C30), 60 minutes (C60), and 120 minutes (C120) (mg/L); UF, ultrafiltration (L); Sust, substitution volume (L); and Qd, dialysate flow (mL/min).
Written informed consent was obtained from all patients. All procedures were in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and its revisions. Descriptive results are expressed as the mean ± standard deviation for normally distributed continuous variables and the median and interquartile ranges for non-normally distributed continuous variables. Categorical variables are reported as percentages. All analyses were performed using IBM SPSS for Mac version 20.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA).
The baseline characteristics of the 19 patients included are shown in Table 1. All patients had a permanent native or prosthetic arteriovenous fistula. All patients completed the experimental sessions with no technical or clinical problems, no occurrences of blood circuit clotting, and no hypersensitivity reactions. The results are represented in Table 2.
Previous in vitro and in vivo studies have reported that an ACT membrane provides high diffusive transport rates with high solute clearance and good biocompatibility, but albumin leakage has not been addressed in these studies [4-6]. Although the acceptable upper limit of dialysis-related albumin loss remains unknown, it should be minimized because it may contribute to hypoalbuminemia and adversely affect the patient’s prognosis. In this study, we demonstrated that OL-HDF with ACT membrane albumin loss is in the lower range compared to synthetic dialyzers and the removal of small and medium-molecules is similar to the results with synthetic membranes under similar conditions [7]. Although our findings demonstrated less albumin leakage than other authors [8], this difference was probably related to the higher convective volume achieved in other studies.
Our study had several limitations. First, this study was developed as an acute study that focused on the results of one dialysis session. Therefore, prospective studies are needed to assess the clinical impact of the use of ACT membranes. Despite the small sample size and absence of a control group, our results are in line with other authors’ [4,5,8] and demonstrated efficacy in solute clearance and also achieved the recommended convective volume while minimizing albumin leakage.
In conclusion, ACT shows excellent behavior in OL-HDF. Although more prospective studies are needed, according to its clearance results and amount of albumin leakage, this dialyzer is not only an alternative for patients with an allergy to synthetic membranes but is also a good option for nonallergic hemodialysis patients.


Conflict of interest

All authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.

Authors’ contributions

Conceptualization: NM, AV

Investigation: LC, AV

Methodology: AS

Writing-original draft: AS

Writing-review & editing: LC

All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Table 1.
Baseline characteristics of the included patients
Characteristic Data
Age (yr) 55.0 ± 17.3
Male sex 13 (68.4)
Dry weight (kg) 65.4 ± 14.2
Serum albumin (g/dL) 4.1 ± 0.4
Hemoglobin (g/dL) 11.2 ± 1.2

Data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation or number (%).

Table 2.
The performance of asymmetric cellulose triacetate dialyzer
Performance Data
Total convective volumea (L) 27.4 ± 3.4
Dialysance (Kt/V) 1.9 ± 0.4
Reduction ratio (%)
 Urea 83.7 ± 5.2
 Creatinine 76.4 ± 5.3
 β2 microglobulin 79.3 ± 4.7
 Cystatin C 77.3 ± 4.7
 Myoglobin 76.6 ± 5.4
 Prolactin 73.7 (67.3-77.5)
Estimated albumin loss (mg/session) 481.2 (384.8-596.7)

Data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation or median (interquartile range).

a Substitution volume + ultrafiltration.


1. Esteras R, Martín-Navarro J, Ledesma G, et al. Incidence of hypersensitivity reactions during hemodialysis. Kidney Blood Press Res 2018;43:1472-1478.
crossref pmid
2. Maduell F, Navarro V, Hernández-Jaras J, Calvo C. [Comparison of dialyzers in on-line hemodiafiltration]. Nefrologia 2000 20:269-276. In Spanish.
3. Bergström J, Wehle B. No change in corrected beta 2-microglobulin concentration after cuprophane haemodialysis. Lancet 1987;1:628-629.
4. Albalate Ramón M, Martínez Miguel P, Bohorquez L, et al. Asymmetric cellulose triacetate is a safe and effective alternative for online haemodiafiltration. Nefrologia 2018;38:315-320.
crossref pmid
5. Kim TR, Hadidi M, Motevalian SP, Sunohara T, Zydney AL. Transport characteristics of asymmetric cellulose triacetate hemodialysis membranes. Blood Purif 2018;45:46-52.
crossref pmid
6. Togo K, Yamamoto M, Imai M, Akiyama K, Yamashita AC. Comparison of biocompatibility in cellulose triacetate dialysis membranes with homogeneous and asymmetric structures. Ren Replace Ther 2018;4:29.
7. Santos García A, Macías Carmona N, Vega Martínez A, et al. Removal capacity of different high-flux dialyzers during postdilution online hemodiafiltration. Hemodial Int 2019;23:50-57.
crossref pmid
8. Maduell F, Ojeda R, Arias-Guillén M, et al. A new generation of cellulose triacetate suitable for online haemodiafiltration. Nefrologia 2018;38:161-168.
crossref pmid
METRICS Graph View
  • 0 Crossref
  •  0 Scopus
  • 1,655 View
  • 58 Download

Alba Santos

Nicolás Macías

Leonidas Cruzado

Almudena Vega

Related articles

Editorial Office
#301, (Miseung Bldg.) 23, Apgujenog-ro 30-gil, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 06022, Korea
Tel: +82-2-3486-8736    Fax: +82-2-3486-8737    E-mail:                

Copyright © 2022 by The Korean Society of Nephrology.

Developed in M2PI

Close layer