Kidney Research and Clinical Practice  
Prevalence of dynapenic obesity and sarcopenic obesity and their associations with cardiovascular disease risk factors in peritoneal dialysis patients
Hadi Tabibi1 , Atefeh As'habi2, Iraj Najafi3, Mehdi Hedayati4
1Department of Clinical Nutrition & Dietetics, Faculty of Nutrition and Food Technology, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2Department of Nutrition, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran
3Department of Nephrology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
4Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences,Tehran, Iran
Correspondence to: Hadi Tabibi
West Arghavan St., Farahzadi Blvd., Shahrak Qods, P.O.Box: 19395-4741, Tehran, Iran. E-mail: hadtabibi@yahoo.com
Received: June 22, 2018; Revised: August 17, 2018; Accepted: September 7, 2018; Published online: November 20, 2018.
© The Korean Society of Nephrology. All rights reserved.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative CommonsAttribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/bync-nd/4.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, andreproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
Background: Dynapenic obesity and sarcopenic obesity increase cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality in nonuremic patients. The present study was designed to determine the prevalence of dynapenic obesity and sarcopenic obesity and their associations with CVD risk factors in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients.
Methods: All eligible PD patients in Tehran peritoneal dialysis centers were included in this cross-sectional study. Skeletal muscle mass and fat mass were assessed using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Muscle strength and physical performance were determined using hand grip strength and a 4-meter walk gait speed test, respectively. Inaddition, a 5-mL blood sample was obtained from each patient.
Results: The prevalence of dynapenic obesity and sarcopenic obesity were 11.4% and 3.8% in PD patients, respectively. Serum high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule type 1, triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly higher in PD patients with dynapenic obesity than in dynapenic nonobese and nondynapenic nonobese patients. Similarly, serum concentrations of CVD risk factors in PD patients with sarcopenic obesity were higher than in nonsarcopenic nonobese patients, but these differences were statistically significant only for serum hs-CRP and triglyceride. In addition, muscle strength and skeletal muscle mass percentage were negatively associated with markers of inflammation and dyslipidemia, whereas body fat percentage was positively associated with these CVD risk factors.
Conclusion: This study indicates that although the prevalence of dynapenic obesity and sarcopenic obesity are relatively low in PD patients, these disorders may be associated with CVD risk factors.
Keywords: Cardiovascular risk factors, Dynapenic obesity, Peritoneal dialysis, Sarcopenic obesity


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