Kidney Res Clin Pract  
Very low protein diet plus ketoacid analogs of essential amino acids supplement to retard chronic kidney disease progression
Bancha Satirapoj, Peerapong Vongwattana, Ouppatham Supasyndh
Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Phramongkutklao Hospital and College of Medicine, Bangkok, Thailand
Correspondence to: Bancha Satirapoj
Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Phramongkutklao Hospital and College of Medicine, 315 Rajavithi Road, Phaya Thai, Bangkok 10400, Thailand. E-mail:
Received: June 7, 2018; Revised: July 29, 2018; Accepted: August 13, 2018; Published online: November 19, 2018.
© The Korean Society of Nephrology. All rights reserved.

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Background: A very low protein diet (VLPD) with ketoacid analogs of essential amino acids (KA/EAA) administration can remarkably influence protein synthesis and metabolic disturbances of patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD), and may also slow the decline in renal function.
Methods: A retrospective cohort study was carried out to monitor renal progression and metabolic and nutritional status among 140 patients with CKD stage III or IV. One group (n = 70) was on a low protein diet (LPD) with 0.6 g of protein intake, and another group (n = 70) was on a VLPD with 0.3 g of protein and KA/EAA supplementation of 100mg/kg/day for 12 months.
Results: At 12-month follow-up, estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) significantly decreased from 41.6 ± 10.2 to 36.4 ± 8.8 mL/min/1.73 m2 (P < 0.001) and urine protein increased from 0.6 ± 0.5 to 0.9 ± 1.1 g/day (P = 0.017) in the LPD group, but no significant changes in estimated GFR and urine protein were found in the VLPD plus KA/ EAA group. A significant mean difference in rate of change in estimated GFR (-5.2 ± 3.6 mL/min/1.73 m2 per year; P < 0.001) was observed between the two groups. After Cox regression analysis, treatment with VLPD plus KA/EAA significantly protected against the incidence of declining GFR > 10% annually (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.42; 95% confidence interval, 0.23-0.79; P = 0.006) and significant correlations were found between using VLPD plus KA/EEA and increased GFR.
Conclusion: VLPD supplementation with KA/EAA is associated with delayed renal progression while preserving the nutritional status in the patients with CKD. Co-administration of VLPD and KA/EAA may prove an effective alternative to conservative management of CKD.
Keywords: Protein-restricted diet, Ketoanalogs supplement, Chronic renal insufficiency


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