Instructions for Authors

Kidney Research and Clinical Practice (formerly The Korean Journal of Nephrology; ISSN 1975-9460, launched in 1982), the official journal of the Korean Society of Nephrology, is an international, peer-reviewed, open access (free submission and free access) journal published in English. Its ISO abbreviation is Kidney Res Clin Pract.
To provide a venue for dissemination of knowledge and discussion of topics related to basic renal science and clinical practice, the journal considers articles on all aspects of clinical nephrology and hypertension, as well as related molecular genetics, anatomy, pathology, physiology, pharmacology, and immunology. In particular, the journal focuses on translational renal research that helps bridge laboratory discovery with the diagnosis and treatment of human kidney disease.
Topics covered include basic science with possible clinical applicability and papers on the pathophysiological basis of disease processes of the kidney. Article types considered for publication include original research, reviews on current topics of interest, and case reports. Accepted manuscripts are granted free online open-access immediately after publication, which permits its users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of its articles, thus facilitating access to a broad readership. Circulation number of print copies is 1,500.
The journal is indexed in SCOPUS, ScienceDirect, DOI/Crossref, PubMed Central (PMC), Google Scholar, KoMCI, KoreaMed, CAS, and Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI). We are supported by the Korean Federation of Science and Technology Societies (KOFST) Grant funded by the Korean Government, and also by the Korean Research Foundation of Internal Medicine (KRFIM) Grant.

1. Manuscript Submission

Important information
Articles should be prepared in the simplest form possible and submitted in Microsoft Word (*.doc or *.docx). Manuscripts must be typed in English and double-spaced. All pages must be numbered consecutively starting from the title page. You may use automatic page numbering, but do NOT use other kinds of automatic formatting such as footnotes. Place text, references, tables and legends in one file with each table on a new page.

Please ensure that the following submission documents are also included, where applicable:

(1) A cover letter. It must include your name, address, telephone and fax numbers, e-mail address, and state that all authors have contributed to the paper and have never submitted the manuscript, in whole or in part, to other journals.
(2) A conflict of interest disclosure statement (see relevant section below).
(3) Articles covering the use of human samples in research and human experiments must be approved by the relevant review committee (see relevant section below).
(4) Articles covering the use of animals in experiments must be approved by the relevant authorities.
(5) Articles where human subjects can be identified in descriptions, photographs or pedigrees must be accompanied by a signed statement of informed consent to publish (in print and online) the descriptions, photographs and pedigrees from each subject who can be identified (see relevant section below).
(6) Clinical trials are recommended to be registered at a primary national clinical trial registration site such as www.clinicaltrials. gov, https://cris.nih.go.kr/cris/index.jsp, or other sites accredited by the World Health Organization or the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors.
(7) Where material has been reproduced from other copyrighted sources, letter(s) of permission from the copyright holder(s) to use the copyrighted sources must be supplied.
(8) Articles should be written in English (using American English spelling) and meet the following basic criteria: the material is original, the information is important, the writing is clear, concise and grammatically correct, the study methods are appropriate, the data are valid, and the conclusions are reasonable and supported by the data. For non-native English-speaking authors, we suggest that manuscripts be checked and edited by a native English speaker.

2. Types of Articles

2.1. Review Articles
These describe new developments of significance in the field of nephrology, and highlight unresolved questions and future directions. Most reviews are solicited by the editors, but unsolicited submissions may also be considered for publication. Review articles should include Abstract, Introduction, brief main headings, Conflicts of interest, and References. The text should be limited to 5,000 words (excluding tables, figures and references).

2.2. Original Articles
These are expected to present major advances and important new research results. Section headings should include Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Conflicts of interest, Acknowledgments (if applicable), and References. The text should be limited to 4,000 words (excluding tables, figures and references) and 40 references.

2.3. Case Reports
These are short peer-reviewed papers presenting novel findings in clinical studies. Case reports are only published if they illustrate a rare occurrence of important clinical importance. Section headings should include Abstract, Introduction, Case, Discussion, Conflicts of interest, and References. The text should be limited to 1,500 words (excluding tables, figures and references) and 15 references. A maximum of 4 figures/tables may be included

2.4. Bench and Bedside
This section reviews current experimental methodologies used in kidney research (Bench) and important diagnostic or therapeutic techniques applied in clinical practice (Bedside). These are usually solicited by the editors, but unsolicited submissions may also be considered for publication. Articles should include Abstract, Introduction, brief main headings, Conflicts of interest, and References. The text should be limited to 4,000 words (excluding tables, figures and references) and 30 references.

2.5. Letters to the Editor
These are letters about readers' opinions or issues of concern on previously published articles in the journal. Receipt of letters will not be acknowledged nor are authors generally consulted before publication. The text should be limited to 400 words (excluding tables, figures and references) and 5 references. Accepted letters are subject to editing for clarity and space.

2.6. Editorials
These are manuscripts that are related to materials within an issue; they raise challenging questions or explore controversies. The editor solicits such opinion pieces. The order of the submitted manuscript includes title page, integrated discussion, conflict of interest, acknowledgments (if applicable) and references. The text should be limited to 1,500 words (excluding references) and 10 references. No figures or tables are included.

2.7 Images in practice
These present classic images of common medical conditions in clinical nephrology. Images are an important part of much of what we do and learn in clinical practice. The text should be limited to 300 words. There should be no more than two figures. No tables or references are included.

3. Manuscript Preparation

3.1. Title page
The title page should include article title, names (spelled out in full in order of first name, initials of middle name and last name) of all authors, and the institutions with which they are affiliated, short running title not exceeding 50 characters, separate word count for abstract and text, and corresponding author details (name, address, phone, fax and e-mail information). The individual contribution of each co-author must also be detailed.

3.2. Abstract and Keywords
Abstract should not exceed 250 words in original or review articles and 150 words in case reports. It must be written for easy reading with no abbreviations. The abstract of the original article should be divided into four subsections: Background, Methods, Results, and Conclusions. Three to five keywords should be listed below the abstract. For selecting keywords, refer to the Index Medicus Medical Subject Headings (Available from: http://www. ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/mesh).

3.3. Main Text
The text for original articles, for example, should include the following sections: Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion. The Introduction should be as concise as possible, without subheadings. The Methods section should be sufficiently detailed. Subheadings may be used to organize the Results and Discussion. Each section should begin on a new page.

Abbreviations
Where a term/definition is continually referred to (≥ 3 times in the text), it is written in full when it first appears, followed by the subsequent abbreviation in parentheses (even if it was previously defined in the abstract); thereafter, the abbreviation is used.

Gene nomenclature
Current standard international nomenclature for genes should be adhered to. Genes should be typed in italic font and include the accession number. For human genes, use genetic notation and symbols approved by the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (http://www.genenames.org/) or refer to PubMed (https://www. ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed).

Units
Système International (SI) units must be used, with the exception of blood pressure values which are to be reported in mmHg. Please use the metric system for the expression of length, area, mass and volume.

3.4. References
Citing references in text
References should be cited with Arabic numerals in square brackets. References are numbered consecutively in order of appearance in text. Multiple references are separated by closedup commas and ranges are indicated with en dash. References cited in tables or figure legends should be included in sequence at the point where the table or figure is first mentioned in text. Abstracts should not be cited unless it is the only available reference to an important concept. Uncompleted work or work that has not yet been accepted for publication (i.e. unpublished observation, personal communication) should not be cited as references. When referring to a study, if the reference has only 1 author, then list the author name directly (e.g. Hawkins [1] reported that...); if the reference has 2 authors, both surnames are listed (e.g. Hawkins and Price [1] reported that…); if the reference has 3 authors or more, then list the surname of the first author only followed by "et al" (e.g. Hawkins et al [1] reported that…). Note that "et al" has not end period and is not in italics.

References section
References are limited to those cited in text and listed in numerical order, NOT alphabetical order. They should include, in order, author names, article title, journal name, volume, inclusive page numbers and year. If there is only one page, state if the article is an abstract or letter. Names of all authors should be listed, and should include the last name and initials of the first name and middle name. Journal names should be in italics and abbreviations for journal titles should conform to those used in MEDLINE. If citing a website, author information, article title, website address and the date the site was accessed should be provided. For an article in press, the journal name and, if possible, the volume and year, must be provided.

Examples
Note the use of italics, semi-colons, colons, en dashes, word capitalization, and page range.

Journal articles:
Su DH, Chang YC, Chang CC: Post-traumatic anterior and posterior pituitary dysfunction. J Formos Med Assoc 104:463–467, 1982 Macdougall IC: Evolution of iviron compounds over the last century. J Ren Care 35 (Suppl 2): S8–S13, 2009 Park CH, Kim EH, Roh YH, Kim HY, Lee SK: The association between the use of proton pump inhibitors and the risk of hypomagnesemia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One 9:e112558, 2014

Book with edition:
Plum F, Posner JB: The Diagnosis of Stupor and Coma, 3rd edition. Philadelphia: FA Davis, 123–133, 1980

Book chapter in book with editors: Kurland LT: The epidemiologic characteristics of multiple sclerosis. In: Vinken PJ, Bruyn GW, eds. Handbook of Clinical Neurology, Vol 9: Multiple Sclerosis and Other Demyelinating Diseases. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing, 63–84, 1970

Book chapter in book with editors and edition:
Levinsky NG: Fluid and electrolytes. In: Thorn GW, Adams RD, Braunwald E, et al, eds. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 8th edition. New York: McGraw-Hill, 364–375, 1977
Conference proceedings: Adams JH: Central pontine myelinolysis. In: Proceedings of the 4th International Congress of Neuropathology, 1961, Munich, Vol 3. Stuttgart: Thieme, 303–308, 1962 [Abstract]
Hung TP, Chiang TR. Multiple sclerosis in Taiwan: clinical, electrophysiological and epidemiological studies. In: 6th Asian and Oceanian Congress of Neurology, 1983, Taipei. Asia Pacific Congress Series No 22. Hong Kong: Excerpta Medica, 28, 1983 [Abstract]

Thesis:
Cairns RB: Infrared Spectroscopic Studies of Solid Oxygen. Berkeley, California: University of California, 156, 1965 [Dissertation]

Website:
HIV/AIDS Reports 2007. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov.tw/ website_en/health%20topics/Communicable%20 Diseases%20 &%20Prevention/Issues%20of%20HIVAIDS/Statistics%20of%20HIVAIDS/ Download%20HIVAIDS%20Data. htm [Date accessed: 31 December 2007] Company/manufacturer publication/pamphlet: Eastman Kodak Company, Eastman Organic Chemicals. Catalog No. 49. Rochester, NY: Eastman Kodak, 2−3, 1977

3.5. Acknowledgments
General acknowledgments for consultations, statistical analysis and so on should be listed after main body of text, before the References section, including the names of the individuals involved. All financial and material support for the research and the work should be stated here clearly explicitly.

3.6. Tables
Tables are numbered consecutively using Arabic numerals in the order of their citation in text. Tables should be typed doublespaced on separate pages in as simple a form as possible. Table titles should be short and descriptive (e.g. Table 1. Demographic characteristics of patients). Information requiring extra explanaztory footnotes should be denoted using these symbols (in order of appearance): *, †, ‡, §, ||, ¶, #, **, ††, ‡‡. When there are more than 10 footnotes, use superscript lowercase letters. Abbreviations used in the table must be defined and placed after the footnotes as shown here: CT, computed tomography; MRI, magnetic resonance imaging. Certain words can be abbreviated in tables as follows: years to yr, months to mo, days to d, hours to hr, minutes to min, seconds to sec, and to &. Use en dash for empty entries.

3.7. Figures
Figure legends should be submitted for all figures. They should be brief and specific, and placed on a separate sheet after the References section. Figures are numbered consecutively using Arabic numerals in the order of their citation in the text. Figures should be uploaded as separate files, not embedded in the manuscript file. Figures that are line drawing or photographs must be submitted separately in high-resolution EPS or TIFF format (or alternatively in high-resolution JPEG format). Please ensure that files are supplied at the correct resolution (1,200 dpi for line drawings and 600 dpi for images such as gels or blots, and 300 dpi for color and half-tone artwork). The files are to be named according to the figure number and format (e.g. Fig1.tif). Figures that are reproduced from other published sources require written permission from the authors and copyright holders. The first color figure charges $600, and$100 of each additional one. Authors must bear all costs associated with printed color figures. If authors elect not to print in color, in most cases, authors will be able to have their color figures produced in black and white for the printed version of the journals, but the figures will appear in color online.

3.8. Supplemental digital content
Authors can submit Supplementary digital content to supplement the information provided in the print version of the manuscript. Supplementary materials will be published online-only. When uploading Supplementary files through the online system, please use the "Supplementary" file designation. Supplementary materials must be cited consecutively in the main body of the submitted manuscript and include the type of material submitted (e.g., "Suppl. Table 1"; "Suppl. Fig. 1").

4. Ethical Considerations

4.1. Ethical Approval of Studies
For human or animal experimental investigations, appropriate institutional review board or ethics committee approval is required. Such approval should be stated in the Methods section of the manuscript. For those investigators who do not have formal ethics review committees, the principles outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki should be followed (World Medical Association. Declaration of Helsinki: Ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects. Available at: http://www. wma.net/e/policy/pdf/17c.pdf).

4.2. Conflicts of Interest
The corresponding author must inform the editor of any potential conflicts of interest that could influence the authors' interpretation of the data. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include financial support from or connections to pharmaceutical companies, political pressure from interest groups, and academically related issues. Conflict of interest statements will be published at the end of the text of the article, before the References section. Please consult the Committee on Publishing Ethics guidelines (http://www.publicationethics.org/) on conflict of interest.

4.3. Authorship
Authorship credit should be based on 1) conception or design, or analysis and interpretation of data; 2) drafting the article or revising it; 3) providing intellectual content of critical importance to the work described; and 4) final approval of the version to be published. Authors should meet above four conditions.

4.4. Redundant Publication or Duplicate Submission
Redundant (or duplicate) publication is publication of a paper that overlaps substantially with one already published in print or electronic media. Submitted manuscripts are considered with the understanding that they have not been published previously in print or electronic format (except in abstract or poster form) and are not under consideration in totality or in part by another publication or electronic medium. For more information, please refer to Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writing and Editing for Biomedical Publication (Available at: http://www.icmje.org/2006_urm.pdf).

5. Review Process

All submissions are sent to peer reviewers. Authors will usually be notified within 4 weeks by e-mail of whether the submitted article is accepted for publication, rejected, or subject to revision before publication. Revised manuscripts must be submitted online by the corresponding author. Failure to resubmit the revised manuscript within 6 months of the editorial decision is regarded as a withdrawal.

6. Peer review

This journal operates a double blind review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final.

7. Reprints

Additional professional reprints (which include a cover page for the article) may be ordered at prices based on the cost of production. A reprint order form is provided by the Publisher, together with the galley proofs.

Kidney Research and Clinical Practice is the official peer-reviewed publication of the Korean Society of Nephrology. Manuscripts published in the Journal become the permanent property the Korean Society of Nephrology. All articles published in the Journal are protected by copyright, which covers the exclusive rights to reproduce and distribute the article, as well as translation rights. No KRCP article, in part or whole, may be reproduced, stored in any retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, by photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission from the Korean Society of Nephrology.

9. Similarity Check

Similarity Check is a multi-publisher initiative to screen published and submitted content for originality. To find out more about Similarity Check, visit http://www.crossref.org/crosscheck/index.html. All manuscripts submitted to Kidney Research and Clinical Practice may be screened, using the iThenticate tool, for textual similarity to other previously published works.

10. Open access

Every peer-reviewed research article appearing in this journal will be published open access. This means that the article is universally and freely accessible via the internet in perpetuity, in an easily readable format immediately after publication. The author does not have any publication charges for open access. The Korean Society of Nephrology will pay to make the article open access. All articles will be published under the following license:

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND): for non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

## Current Issue

 30 June 2017 Volume 36,Number 2, pp. 109~206